Nonverbal communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions (NDEPT)
Developers: Rita Gorawara-Bhat, Mary Ann Cook, Greg A. Sachs
Year of publication: 2007, 2013
Date of last revision: 18 September 2019
Setting in which the tool was originally developed/validated: Out-patient clinic setting (USA)
Restriction to setting(s): None
Target group: Older-patients and physicians in out-patient clinic and hospital settings
1) Static attributes of the clinic setting--e.g. physician's desk, exam table etc.
2) Dynamic attributes of the clinic setting--e.g. interaction distance between physician and patient
3) Kinesic attributes emanating from physician--e.g. eye contact, gesture etc.
Types of data required to use the tool: Video recordings
Intended application: Education, Research
Reference(s) to development/validation paper(s):
1. Nonverbal communication in doctor–elderly patient transactions (NDEPT): Development of a tool. Gorawara-Bhat, Rita, Mary Ann Cook, Greg A. Sachs. Patient Education and Counseling , Volume 66 , Issue 2 , 223 - 234.
2. Physician eye contact and elder patient perceptions of understanding and adherence. Rita Gorawara-Bhat, David L. Dethmers, Mary Ann Cook. Patient Education and Counseling. Volume 92, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 375-380.
Tool/manual available: Yes.
Tool description by the author: Salient features of the tool were derived from the medical literature and systematic observations of videotapes and refined during current research. The tool consists of two main dimensions of exam rooms: (1) physical dimensions comprising static and dynamic attributes that become operational through the spatial configuration and can influence the manifestation of (2) kinesic attributes. Details of the coding form and inter-rater reliability are presented in the two PEC papers cited above. The usefulness of the tool is demonstrated through an analysis of 50 National Institute of Aging videotapes. Physicians in exam rooms with no desk in the interaction, no height difference and optimal interaction distance were observed to have greater eye contact and touch than physicians' in exam rooms with a desk, similar height difference and interaction distance. Practice implications: The tool can enable physicians to assess the spatial configuration of exam rooms (through Parts A and B) and thus facilitate the structuring of kinesic attributes (Part C). Training needed: suggested 30 - 40 hours. Tool nature: Descriptive